What frustrated the German plan "Barbarossa" in 1941? This question interested many people before the end of World War II (1941-1945). Of course, for the USSR everything was extremely clear, and history buffs are enthusiastically studying this topic until now.
The country's leadership explained to the people the failure of the “Barbarossa” plan with the stamina, fearlessness and strength of the Soviet people. At the same time, the party authorities did not forget to emphasize their role in the victory over the fascists.On December 18, 1940, Adolf Hitler signed the plan of Barbarossa, which provided for a lightning defeat of the main forces of the Red Army.
Everywhere and everywhere it was reported that Hitler simply could not defeat the invincible Red Army, led by Stalin. Also constantly talked about the irrecoverable losses of the Wehrmacht in the battles of Moscow, Leningrad and Rostov-on-Don.
At that time, Viktor Anfilov’s book, Blitzkriga Failure, was very popular. This is how the author described the first months of the war, after which the Russian army launched a counteroffensive near Moscow.
Of course, the Soviet troops and the people as a whole, made a real feat. However, for the sake of fairness, it is necessary to point out other reasons that led to the disruption of the German plan Barbarossa. For example, in the West, including Germany itself, the main reason for the failure was considered the wrong decision of Hitler to turn 2 tank groups from the Moscow direction. This happened on July 19, 1941.
In his book "The 10 Fatal Mistakes of Hitler," the American historian Bevin Alexander adheres to this point of view, and Hermann Goth, who commanded at that time 3 tank group.German plan "Barbarossa" to seize the USSR
The latter, in his work “Tank Operations”, devoted an entire chapter to this topic, entitled “Hitler Fails the Campaign Plan.” In this, Gotha was supported by all his colleagues, including the then commander-in-chief of the 2nd tank group, Heinz Guderian.
However, a number of modern historians do not agree with this assessment, regarding the decision of Hitler logically grounded and the only true. They explain this by the fact that at that time tank groups were ineffective in attacking Moscow. According to them, in the offensive it was more reasonable to use the infantry, since the tank divisions could not break through the defenses of the enemy.
The best solution for the attack on Moscow was the use of infantry divisions, after which heavy artillery and aircraft entered the battle. Tank groups were intended to attack from the rear and were the last link in the closure of the enemy in the ring.
If we consider the German plan "Barbarossa" from this side, then the use of tanks was really a useless undertaking. If it were not for one "but."
The fact is that the authors sticking to this version make a serious mistake by asserting that the Soviet troops fought defensive battles against the Germans. In fact, the Red Army adhered to the tactics of offensive, not defense. In feature films, we often see German tanks attacking Soviet trenches, which has nothing to do with reality.
In fact, in the autumn of 1941, the Red Army, in principle, could not sit on the defensive. First, the full-fledged full profile trenches in the Red Army were not provided for by the charter, and secondly, there was no one to dig them.
After the turn of the 2nd and 3rd tank groups on Kiev and Leningrad, the attack on Moscow actually slowed down. However, the problems of the German troops with the implementation of plans began even earlier.
The collapse of the plan "Barbarossa"
The American historian David Glanz, for example, speaks of this fact in the book The Collapse of the Barbarossa Plan. The author claims that in the middle of July the top leadership of the Wehrmacht exulted in endless victories in battles against the Russians.
On July 3, 1941, Chief of the General Staff General Franz Halder made the following entry in his diary: "It would not be an exaggeration to call the military campaign against Russia won within 2 weeks."
At the same time, he added that a full victory would take several more weeks. The Germans were confident of their superiority over the enemy because they were able to destroy the key positions of the Red Army without any problems.
According to Admiral Canaris’s intelligence, the USSR had no reserve troops, and the creation of new divisions could only happen in a couple of months.
The fatal mistake in underestimating the Soviet armed forces led to the fact that the Germans did not have information about the existence of 6 armies created by the USSR in June. The Wehrmacht leadership did not even suspect the transfer of troops from the Trans-Baikal region.
All these forces were thrown into a counterattack against the fascists in mid-July. In the battles of Smolensk, the Germans fought with the new Russian units, which had full military training.
The swift attack of the Soviet divisions stopped the advance of the Goth and Guderian tank groups to Moscow. Soon, Smolensk pulled up and took the brunt of the field units of the group "Center".
German tanks were used to destroy the Soviet flank. However, all this has not changed the situation. As a result, all these actions led to the disruption of the German plan "Barbarossa".
The generals of Hitler realized that their plan failed in the battle of Smolensk. Seeing the strength and perseverance of the Soviet soldiers, the German commanders were forced to abandon the original tactical installations and begin to look for other ways to achieve the goal.
And although the Nazis were able to overcome the Soviet troops, they lost a lot of strength in the form of technology and human resources. In addition, time was lost, which played into the hands of the USSR.
Soviet troops managed to form new reserves, which replaced the defeated troops. All these factors actually caused the disruption of the German plan "Barbarossa".